|ΧΡΟΝΟΛΟΓΙΟ ΤΩΝ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΩΝ ΓΕΓΟΝΟΤΩΝ
Η σελίδα είναι υπο κατασκευή λόγω μετάφρασης στα Ελληνικά
Τα γεγονότα που οδήγησαν στην εκδίωξη των Χριστιανικών πλυθισμών από την Μικρα Ασία και την δημιουργία του Τουρκικού κράτους.
29 Μαίου 1453
|Οι Οθομανοί κατακτούν την Κωνσταντινούπολη.
Ο τελευταίος Αυτοκράτωρ Κωνσταντίνος Παλαιολόγος.
An abstract view of an artist
Taking the boats over land.
|25 March 1821
||The start of the Greek War of independence against the Ottoman Empire.
|15th of June 1821
||Massacre of Greek population in Aivali (Kydonies). The town was later rebuilt by Greeks. The Greek population was numbering around 46 thousand including the suburbs. There were approximately eight thousand Greek houses in the town.
||The massacre of Greek population in Chios Island. The actual number killed is not known. Forty seven thousands were taken to slavery.
||The Russian-Turkish war. Britain does not allow Greece to participate by the side of Russia. As a result Greece misses the opportunity to speed up the liberation of Macedonia, Thrace Crete and Epirus.
||Greek Turkish War.
||The movement of “Young Turks” started in Macedonia and East Thrace, still under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
On October 29th 1907, Kemal Ataturk is becoming a member of “Young Turks”.
The “New Turks” Movement in 1902
The New Turks slogans 1908
The “New Turks” did not hide their intentions for the Greeks in Smyrna.
A Greek had mentioned to Nasim Bei that since the Greek element was so strong in Smyrna they should take it in their consideration more seriously. But Nasim Bei exposed himself saying that: “May be if I through 100.000 Turks in Smyrna I will change the ratio…..”
Re: L.P. Alaux et R. RUAUX. Le decline de Hellenism, Paris, Payot 1916, p.38.
||On July 1908 the revolution of New Turks brings back the Constitution of 1876 in Turkey hence creating two parliamentary bodies to counterbalance the power of the Sultan.
The committee of parliamentary ellections 1908
Greek members of the Ottoman Parliament 1908
Vive la constitution 1908
New Turks Demonstrating in Smyrna. (Observe the Greek flags) 1908
||During April 1`909 Sultan Abdoul Hamit B! is overthrown by the “Young Turks” and is imprisoned in Thessalonica.
The New Turks promote Mehmet E! brother of Abdoul Hamit. Behind the common objective to save the Empire and to control of the Sultan it is the committee “Union and progress” which consists of mixture of groups, conflicting and antagonizing each other.
The revolution of New Turks
New Turks in front of Gildiz Palace 1909
|19 October 1910
||El. Venizelos is becoming Prime Minister of Greece
The Armenian ordeal starts.
The Armenian ordeal. 1910
|1st April 1911
||According to instructions issued by the “New Turks” committee, trading regulations forbid Greek traders to operate in Asia Minor. In Smyrna, advertisements are posted requesting all “non Greek” elements to avoid visits to Greek shops and coffee places.
THE BALKAN WARS
|12th April 1912
||The Italians start the occupation of the islands of Dodecanise in Ageon sea, still under the Ottoman Empire.
On 21st of April 1912, Rodos, is occupied by the Italians.
|16th May 1912
||A treaty is signed between Greece and Bulgaria, this is effectively an alliance against the Turkey.
|5th October 1912
||Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria declare war against Turkey.
Large part of what is Greece today is liberated after continuous fighting. Areas liberated include Thessalonica, the islands of Lesbos (Mitilini), Samos, Thasos, Tenedos, Psara, Ikaria, Chios etc.
The Battle of Chios
The Greek Flag Ship Averof in Chios battle.
|26th October 1912
||Greek Army occupies Thessalonica
|11th January 1913
||The Turkish Government under Mahmout. Sefket is overthrown by Emver Beis, the strong man of the Committee o “Union and Progress”.
On the 23rd of January Costandinouple, full of refugees, divided by political rivals is learning that Enver with just a few “Fentagin” (members of religious and political groups with anti government activity) entered the office of Grand Vezir and assassinated the Minister of war.
|21st February 1913
||The Turkish army is defeated in Epiros, the town of Joannina is liberated by the Greek army.
|5th May 1913
||The Greek King George A! is assassinated by the Germans. A very critical action, because King George was supporter of the Alliance and in the event he would be alive, later, the Asia Minor catastrophe, most probably wouldn’t have happened.
King Kostantine and the Turkish Mayor of Thessalonka. 1913
|17th May 1913
||A treaty is signed between Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Turkey in London, in which Turkey abandons all interests on the Island of Crete and gives control of certain areas in Ageon Sea and Marmara sea to the Allies.
|6th June 1913
||Second phase of Balkan Wars
|10th August 1913
||Treaty of Bucharest is signed.
|1st November 1913
||A treaty is signed between Greece and the Ottoman Empire.
End of the Balkan Wars.
||Liman Von Sanders, German General was sent to Turkey to undertake as Chief of the German commission.
He reorganized the Turkish Army after its defeat in the Balkan Wars.
Sanders recommended the persecutions of Greek populations that followed during 1914.
He became Chief of the Turkish Army in Kafkasos in the 1st World War and commander of the 5th Army directing the operations in Dardanells, (Chanakale) in 1915 and Chief of the Turkish Army in Syria during 1918.
He wrote his memoirs for his life and services in Turkey, “Fund JahreTurkei” 1920.
Re: F. Sarttioux Asia Minor p. 156.
A Turkish member of the parliament asked the Turkish Minister of exterior Mr Tallat: “Why did you give the administration of the Turkish state to the Germans? Don’t you see the plans of Germany to convert Turkey to a protectorate?” Tallat responded: “We understand very well the German plans, but we have to accept their support, for the time, very soon we will be ready to administer our country on our own.”
Re: F. Sarttioux Asia Minor p. 178.
|30th January 1914
||Start of the plan to Exterminate Armenian population in Constantinople, Adana and many other places.
In this period after the start of the European War One million Armenians were killed.
The Greeks suffered less, in comparison, they had a country to protect them. An explanation given by Henri Morgenthan the Ambassador of US in Constantinople, who was in continuous contact with Tallat Ember and Tjemal from 1913 to 1916. He mentioned this on his book published in London with the title “Secrets of Bosporous’
Re: F. Sarttioux Asia Minor p. 170, 171.
Never the less, huge persecutions of Greeks, living in East Thrace and west coast of Asia Minor, instigated by “Young Turks”. Started.
||The first phase of persecutions against Greeks, took place between May and July 1914, this “hit” a population of 200 thousands with only a small percentage killed, around 2%.
The population “hit” during the second phase was much higher, around 800.000 and the percentage killed reached 50%.
The centers of resistance, in Aivali and Vourla were totally destroyed. The cleansing operations extended up to the sea of Marmara, in Kysikos Peninsula and the Black Sea.
Smyrna was threatened, seriously, for the first time.
Pachmi Beys publicly declared that instead of allowing the town to fall in enemy hands we would rather totally destroy it. At the same time very big quantities of Gasoline was stored by official orders, in public places and polish stations,.
Re: F. Sarttioux Asia Minor p. 172.
The ‘Red Massacre” was concluded by the “White Massacre”.
The method of “White Massacre” consisted of the formation of special units of prisoners called Tamirat Tabourou and Amele Tabourou, units of approximately 1000 men who were forced to obligatory labor with minimum food and water. The prisoners were dying by the thousands.
Re: F. Sartioux Asia Minor p.172,173
||The Attack of Turks on Greek population in Fokea of Asia Minor was so cruel that an investigation committee was set up.
Chukri Beis the Ottoman representative in the International investigating committee stated, in a way of pardon, to the committee:
“The cruel events in Fokea is a black mark in the recent History of Turkey”.
Re: F. Sartioux Asia Minor p.179
Method of Terrorizing populations.
Re: Les Sac de Phocee et l’expulsion des Grecs Ottomns d’ Asie Mineure en J une 1914 in Reveu desax Mondes of 15th of Decembre 1914 p.4
|29th October 1914
||Greek Cypriots celebrate the attachment of Cyprus to Great Britain as a first step to Union with Greece.
|11th January 1915
||Britain is inviting Greece to enter the first world war on their side promising liberation of the Greek populated areas of Asia Minor.
||The Burning of Peramos (Karsi Yaka).
||Prosecution of Greek population in large numbers.
Five hundred (500.000) Greeks are forced to flee to the interior of Asia Minor. Sevastia (Sivas), Argyroupolis (Gumushane), Iconyo (Konya) and Diyarbakir
Peramian Refugees during the 1915 persecutions.
||The British and the French depose Greek King Constantine who is exiled in Switzerland.
Greece takes the decision to join the war at the side of “Adant” Powers (France and Britain).
This action exposed the real face of the Greek politician Venizelos who appeared to be under the full influence of the Western Powers and especially Gr. Britain, which wanted Greece to help out with additional cover for Suez Canal and their plans to control the oil producing countries of Middle East.
The secret Anglo-French agreements, “Saiks –Picau”(signed on the 16th of May 1916), made provision for one zone in Kilikia, under French control, on the coast of Syria and Lebanon and one zone which would include Iraq together with Basora and Baghdad, under the control of Great Britain
Arrival of Alenby to Cairo, (June 1916).
The British decide to open a second front against the Germans in Palestine.
The mission, which was entrusted to agent Thomas Edward Lawrence, who was later known as “Lawrence of Arabia”, was to raise all Arab tribes against the Ottoman Empire.
A very difficult game of chess or rather a game of billiard in which the British play with the French under the careful observations of the Zionist movement and the Americans. The game is not over even up to day.
|6th April 1917
||US Joins the War
|9th April 1917
||Agreement of St. Jean de Maurien.
The British, the Russians and the French, in order to tempt Italy to abandon its neutrality and enter the First World War in support of the three, they commit, in writing, to Italy that in the event of victory they will satisfy Italy’s request, among other, they will give to Italy Smyrna and the surrounding areas.
Four months later Greece enters the War with similar promises expressed by England and France.
|GREECE OFFICIALLY JOINS THE FIRST WOLD WAR AT THE SIDE OF BRITAIN AND FRANCE
|30 July 1917
||Greece enters the War against Germany in support of Britain and France. The main reason for which Greece entered the war was the hypocritical promises that Britain and France made to Greece that they will allow the liberation of the Greek populated areas around Smyrna and East Thrace. Hypocritical because they had promised the same thing to Italy.
The Greek population was estimated to be around 2.500.000, in the year 1900.
Re:The Infamy of a Great Betrayal by Dr John Murat. P 33
|11th December 1917
||After defeating the Turks Alenby enters with the British Army in Jerusalem.
|1st October 1918
||Emir Faisal of Saudi Arabian origin occupies Damascus with the help of Lawrence. Immediately afterwards Alenby arrives in Damascus
From this point onwards, the game of promises under false pretences, from every body to every body, is becoming normal practice.
The various Arab groups and families (Hasemites , Faysal, Ibn Saud, etc ) are drown in this game, by Great Britain.
The French the Americans and the British were forming Anglo-American and French Oil companies. Finally Zionism was also involved with an outmost objective, the return of the Jews in Palestine.
The “payback” for this devious and treacherous British political maneuvering towards all parties involved was the creation of “Iraq Petroleum Company” serving mainly British interests.
Nevertheless Great Britain did not manage to maintain control of the Oil production as Ibn Saoud managed to trick the British and pass the key of control to the Americans in mid thirties.
|30 0ctober 1918
||The Ottoman Empire surrenders to the allied forces. Truce is signed by Minister of Nautical affairs, Raauf Bey and the “Adant” powers in Mudros port of the Island of Lymnos. The Turkish army was numbering around 2.570.000 soldiers.
Half a million deserters from the Turkish Army create groups of armed unites which operate as free agents, called Chettes. Chettes controlled large areas even complete villages or towns and became a real threat for the Greeks of Asia Minor.
After the Ottoman defeat hundreds of thousand of Greeks return back on the west cost of Asia Minor and on the coasts the sea of Marmara.
A. Rallis, representative of the Greek Government gives an estimate of the returning population to be around 280.000.
2.000 Greeks return to of Peramos of Kyzikos and rebuilt their town.
|1st November 1918
||The British, French and Greek Army enters and occupies Constantinople.
Averof the Greek Flagship anchors in Bosporous.
The Greek Flag Ship Averof.
The British occupy Constantinople.
|11th November 1918
||Germany is defeated and signs a truce with the Allies.
This day was later called “Armistice day”.
|30th December 1918
||Venizelos announces the Greek request to the International peace conference, for East Thrace, North Epirous, the Agean Islands and Cyprus,
|3rd February 1919
||The Greek Prime Minister El Venizelos is officially requesting from The International Peace Conference, held in Paris, permission to occupy Smyrna.
|12th March 1919
||The Italians, very bitter with the refusals of the Allies, including US, to honor promises given that would allow them to promote their National interests in Adriatica Sea and Asia Minor, they send the Italian war ship “Regina Elena” and disembarked Italian forces in Adalia of Asia Minor trying to create a “fait accompli”, they also proceed with further advances of Military units which were based in Rodos island.
The Allies are becoming extremely nervous and started to worry with these unauthorized Italian advances and tried to take quick decisions regarding the occupation of Smyrna.
A telegraphic report sent to the Peace Conference, on the 25th of April, states that seven Italian war ships were taking positions, with the obvious intention to prepare for a unilateral action and disembark the Italian Bersaglieri units in Smyrna.
On 6th of May, the Allies hastily announce to El Venizelos their provisional approval for the Greek occupation of Smyrna and surrounding areas.
Re: Churchill W., Memoirs P387
||A major attack is executed by Turkish elements for the extermination of the Greeks in the areas of Pontos and Caucasus. Whole villages and towns are totally eliminated.
This was encouraged and supported by Kiazim Karabekir the ex General of the Ottoman Army who had, by now, joined Kemal’s forces.
|14th May 1919
||The Turks open their prisons and free all criminals.
Re: G. Horton Telegram to the State Department. Also Peter Bruzanski. page 337.
|EVENTS AFTER THE OCCUPATION OF SMYRNA BY THE GREEK ARMY
|15th May 1919
||The Greek Army enters Smyrna with the blessings of the Allies in spite of skepticism expressed from many parts that were proposing a joint action to avoid possible aggravation of the Turkish population.
The disembarkation of the Greek Army in Smyrna gave the opportunity to many extremist elements including Greeks, Armenians and Turks themselves to start fighting and killings that took three days to control.
The commander of Turkish forces in Smyrna General Ali Nadi Pasha stated that he had forty unarmed soldiers killed and many more wounded. He accused Greeks for his maltreatment and unlawful imprisonment in a Greek Battle Ship.
From the official enquiry that was held later, the actual loss of human lives is estimated as follows:
One hundred Greeks, two to three hundred Turks were killed, this accounts for all killings that took place in the Turkish sector as well. The total number of persons injured or maltreated during this period remains unaccounted for.
Within these three days the Greek Military command identified most of the responsible persons for these criminal activities, they freed the Turkish General Ali Nadi Pasha to whom they offered compensation for his unlawful imprisonment. The Turkish General, proudly, refused the compensation.
The Greek command also set up a military Jury and convicted 54 persons that lead these events convicting with very harsh sentences for all persons found guilty.
This was used later as a proof to blame, solely, the Greek Nation for the atrocities of 15th of May 1919.
Re: Toynbee, page 392-395, Horton The Blight, page 72-78. Captain Dayton, US Battle ship Arisona.
“The infamy of a Great Betrayal” page 52.
The US Admiral Bristol in a letter to Admiral W.S.Sims writes with unbelievable bias:
“I find the reaction of the Turkish people totally justifiable. My expert judgment would agree with any body that knows the barbarous character of Greeks.
The Greeks are the worst race from all those existing in the area.”
The comander of the Greek Armed forces in parade in Smyrna 1922
Re: Bristol Documents NA Report of operations from 18th May ending May 25th 1919.
The Representative of Italy in Constantinople, Sforza, although officially appearing to follow the common policy and decisions of the rest of the Allies, he was secretly negotiating with the revolutionaries to help them, so that Britain would fail in the execution of their plans which still included the support of the Greeks in Smyrna.
Italy already was supplying arms to Kemal, who was trying to gain the leadership of the revolutionary Army, in Turkey.
|19th May 1919 .
||Kemal goes to Samsund to deal with the Greek population of Pontus. The start of the organization of Turkish Army and the “rounding up” of the extermination of Greeks of the Black sea.
The false Turkish propaganda, that the total number of dead from the Greek invasion in Smyrna had reached forty thousand, was creating anger within Turkish populations and became the best present for Kemal, who was organizing the uprise of the Turkish nation.
|14th June 1919
||Greece’s application to the High Committee of the International Peace Conference to allow the Greek Army to defend the Greek populated areas because of Turkish attacks from the areas of the Ottoman Empire that were still occupied by the Italians at the time. The Turkish attacks were made with the support of the Italians. No decision was taken.
|15th June 1919
||Turkish attack on Pergamos.
From 11.000 Greek soldiers only 600 survived.
Re: Horton Report to US State Dept. 376.72/13152
|15th June 1919
||Turkish accusations, supported by Italians, were made to the International conference for Peace, for Greek atrocities in Smyrna.
Greece was not invited or allowed to bring any witnesses to counter these accusations.
Member of the committee of investigation was US Admiral Mark Bristol fanatic supporter of Turkey, defending US interests
Re: (Bristol Documents)
| 8th of July 1919
||Kemal Ataturk resigns from the official Turkish Army.
|16th July 1919
Agreement between Greece and Italy for Dodecanise
||Xanthi is liberated by the Greek Army.
|14th May 1920
||Alexandroupolis is liberated by the Greek Army.
|9th July 1920
||Italy cancels it’s agreement with Greece for Dodecanise, signed on the 16th of July 1919
|19th July 1920
||The Greek Army occupies East Thrace, except Constantinople.
|10th August 1920
||The signing of the agreement of Sevres
Venizelos signs the treaty of Sevres.
….and imediatelly afterwords:
||The National election in Greece which Veniselos lost.
The elections were conducted with a system called “Pliopsifiko” that was effectively violating the majority votes.
This is how Veniselos lost and opposition managed to take control of the parliament even if they were a minority.
Any other election system would have resulted in the opposite result.
Venizelos, deeply disappointed with these development especially because this election result came only a few months after his personal success of the signing of the Treaty of Sevres, decided to abandon any political involvement and leave Greece.
On the 4th of November 1920 he was saying;
“ I was mistaken, I was under the impression that I had the people on my side, that the important work that had been done would follow me. I was wrong, the people were tired. I don’t want to be resentful, I don’t blame the people, I have asked more sacrifices than the people can give….
My conscience is bothering me, I bear deep historical responsibility….
….They will bring back King Constantine. And Constantine will not be patriotic enough to refuse.
The treaty of Sevres will not save us. Italy was drawn to it
France will not support us if we bring back King Constantine.
Only UK will not put terms. I never relied to the strength of our army to maintain our boarders, but to our allies and the general European Interests. The return of King Constantine will destroy these alliances”.
|THE CHANGE OF POLICIES FOR GREECE, BY THE ALLIES, THAT MENT THE TOTAL CATASTROPH OF THE GREEK POPULATION IN ASIA MINOR.
|22nd of Nov. 1920
||The referendum for the return of the Monarchy in Greece.
Two days before the referendum the Ambassadors of England, France and Italy gave warning to the Greek Prime minister that the developments were obliging them to change their political position with Greece.
The Government ignored this warning from their allies who immediately withdrew their support and reverted doing exactly the opposite they supported Turkey serving their new geopolitical interests betraying the country which was their ally up to this moment.
The “anti Venizelists” in Greece, contrary to their pre-election promises continued the war and even more they started an expedition in the deeper Asia Minor.
|6th December 1920
||King Constantine returns to Greece.
|15th December 1920
||The Allies change their polices for Greece.
|19th December 1920
||The Allies announce to the Greek Government that they disengage from their obligations to Greece.
EXTRACT FROM THE DOCUMENTS ON BRITISH FOREIGN POLICY 1919-1939.
“ We can deal with Kemal with the power of Arms, and we do so, up to a point, with some success, based mainly on the Greek Army.
The second option is to play the game of waiting with the expectation that the position of Kemal , which is not very strong, to weaken gradually.
The third option is to come to terms with Kemal and secure some important interests from the Agreement of Sevres against some…. Concessions.”
|14th March 1921
||The Greek Army wins the Battle of Afion Karhisar
|6th July 1921
||The Greek Army occupies Eski Sehir.
|14th August 1921
||General assault of the Greek Army East of Saggarious
|4th October 1921
||The Turkish Army shoots all prisoners of Thrace or Smyrna origin.
|27th October 1921
||France signs Agreement with Turkey to save French Syria and to increase its influence in Turkey.
|15th January 1922
||France increases its military support to Turkey.
|13th August 1922
||Great Turkish assault in Afion Karahisar.
|17th August 1922
||N Tricoupis is captured and the Greek Army is loosing the battle.
|26th August 1922
||The Grand offensive of the Turkish Army
|8th September 1922
||The highest Greek civil Administrator in Smyrna, Stergiadis, issued an announcement that as of 22 hours this day there will be no Greek Administration in Smyrna.
The French and Italian consulates issued an announcement that the population of Smyrna had nothing to be afraid off.
Stergiadis delivered the keys of the Greek administration offices to the French Consulate and departed at 20 hours this evening under the curses of the Greek populations.
Deadly silence prevailed in the city as if the population was holding their breath from fear.
Re: Horton, George Blight of Asia.
At the same time an official reception was given by the British Consulate in Constantinople. A very interesting discussion took place between Lord Beeaverbrook and Admiral Bristol.
|9th September 1922
||The Turkish Army enters Smyrna.
|11th September 1922
||The Massacre of Chrisostomos the Archbishop of Smyrna.
On Monday the 11th of September a little after midday the Turkish General Commander of Turkish forces in Smyrna Noureddin sent to capture Archbishop Chrisostomos.
The Archbishop arrived separately from the Turkish unit accompanied by a unit of 12 French soldiers. The Archbishop extended his arm to greet the Turkish General. Noureddin spat on his face and with uncontrollable anger pointed with his finger at a dossier on the table. And said: “ Having as a basis these sworn accusations the military Jury in Ankara convicted you to death. The only thing remaining is for the people to execute this sentence. Get lost from my sight.”
The Archbishop was thrown to the people awaiting outside. The mob actually cut him in pieces, they took his eyes out, they cut his tang, his ears and his nose. The cut his hands and tight his body to a car and draged his body around in the streets.
Re: Les Dernier Jours de Smyrne, 1923 Puda Rene.
The French Admiral Dumesnil a phanatic Catholic and friend of the Turks said.
“He got what he deserved”
The Infamy of a Great Betrayal. Page 147.
Archibishope of Smyrna Chrissostomos.1922
“The mob actually cut him in pieces, they took his eyes out, they cut his tang, his ears and his nose. They cut his hands and tight his body to a car and draged his body around in the streets. “
My God!! Smyrna 1922
Fishing the bodies 1922
Selection of prisoners Smyrna 1922
|28th September 1922
||The treaty of Moudania. A truce signed by the Allies and Kemal without the presence of Greece.
|12th November 1922
||The Greek Army withdraw from East Thrace.
|3rd December 1922
||Cyprus demonstrations for union with Greece.
To be continioud.